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Juvenile Detention

Understanding the Funding and Management

Understanding the Funding and Management

Understandably, for any business or office to run
efficiently and effectively, certain elements must be in place. Certainly, an
organization must have the raw materials with which to work and the money for
these materials must come from somewhere. On top of this, a particular entity
must have the knowledge and skills to know how to best utilize that money.

The nature of grants for youth detention centers follows
somewhat of a trickle-down effect. Of course, an individual youth detention
center will have its own director at the helm and a
treasury/finances/accounting department to handle budgeting and other financial
issues, but they have their own responsibilities without being fundraisers too.

For financing youth detention centers at the State
level, there are a few routes by which the U.S.
Federal Government
may allocate monies to the states. Most youth detention centers, though,
operate at the county level, and so a second handing down of monies m
ust occur.

It should be noted that even if Federal
monies are not specifically designed for criminal and juvenile justice, if they
are employed in the service of children and the public interest, they may be
used toward the costs of building and running youth detention centers. For
example, there is precedence for states allocating stimulus money from the U.S.
Department of Education to this very cause. 

All You Need to Know About The History Juvenile Detention

All You Need to Know About The History Juvenile Detention

In the United States, the 19th Century marked the beginning of the use of juvenile
detention center facilities. Juvenile detention programs were really only a
subset of a larger American effort toward “reformatory” institutions
and attitudes that also encompassed rehabilitation of young women (usually
those pregnant out of wedlock) and young adult men (who were found guilty of
some crime or vice).

 

The name “reformatory” in itself is a synonym for a center was multifaceted. Not only were
its residents meant to be reformed in terms of abiding by the laws of man, but
their religious spirit was also
to be
reformed as part of the country’s Protestant lineage.

    

As for the concept of the juvenile detention center in
particular, some institutions really took the idea of parens patriae to
heart. As surrogate caretakers, many juvenile detention facilities sought to
provide for their resident minors on all counts, including educating them in
the hopes of immunizing them against the ills of society. Thus, a juvenile
detention center might
have been
referred to in the past as a “reformatory school.”

 

The legacy of detention centers as places of learning is
one of decidedly mixed success, as curricula were not subject to today’s more
rigorous standards and some schools even lost sight of their educational goals
in trying to maintain disciplinarian sensibilities. To some extent, though,
detention centers still provide educative resources and other amenities.

 

Another critical mission of juvenile detention that was
prominent in past years and, though to a lesser extent, is focused on in more
recent times in the United States is the idea of vocational training. Granted,
school-age education was still of primary importance among centers, but in
terms of job and life skills, some heads of facilities saw a mandate to attend
to these concerns.

 

Probably the most famous of these centers, which was not
actually a juvenile detention center but nonetheless had all the elements of a
juvenile reformatory, was the Elmira Reformatory, founded in and helmed by
Zebulon Brockway in 1876. The Reformatory, which provided vocational classes,
physical activity and education to its delinquent male inhabitants
, is remembered by some for its contributions to
differentiating between adult and juvenile criminals
.
However, r
eports also suggest Brockway ruled Elmira
with an iron fist, often keeping inmates in line through acts of violence.

What Are The Implications Juvenile Detention

What Are The Implications Juvenile Detention

The
consequences of holding juvenile delinquents in locked-door facilities loom
largest for the offending minors themselves. Exposure to juvenile courts,
detention centers and other out-of-home destinations for juvenile offenders
portends poorly for their ability to stay out of trouble as an adult.
Recidivism (repeated arrests and/or criminal convictions) of adult populations
is much higher for those individuals with a
 juvenile record.         

As one might imagine, the immediate consequences of
finding oneself in a juvenile institution are troubling in their own right and
are only exacerbated by juvenile incarceration in an all-purpose correctional
facility. Juvenile delinquents forced into a prison-like environment are at
risk of violence, abuse, and
 rape.         

Of lesser importance but still not to be discounted,
juvenile detention has its practical concerns. It is rather expensive to
operate so many facilities designed to feed, clothe, house, educate
, and
rehabilitate thousands of American boys and girls, and realistically, little is
done about treating the causes of delinquency in this country. Children are
essentially held captive to the point of overcrowding in centers and jails and often
become still more of a danger to those living outside the walls of these
buildings.

Know The Other Types of Facilities for Delinquents

Know The Other Types of Facilities for Delinquents

Studies
suggest that the juvenile delinquent stands to suffer severely from even
short-term stays in secure detention centers, and subsequently, supporters seek
substitutes to this seemingly simplistic solution. Specifically, advocates for
disaffected children aim to find alternatives to locking juvenile delinquents
away until something more appropriate is found for them, and moreover, these
alternatives would likely be cost-effective ways of addressing the need for
keeping offenders close at hand before and after adjudication.

 

The
following are other types of facilities that may be used in this country to
temporarily hold the juvenile delinquent populace:



While not technically a discussion of how facilities may
better serve the needs of juvenile delinquents, there is the possibility that
they may be released back to their homes prior to appearance in juvenile court
. Another
non-traditional “facility” of merit for juvenile delinquents is the
reporting center, which would allow children to stay out of secure detention
centers provided they report daily to it. In particular, this seems beneficial
to the low-income portion of the juvenile delinquent population. Alongside
heavy scrutiny of their case, juvenile delinquents may draw positives from the
intervention strategies, recreational programs, and life skills workshops
offered by reporting centers, as well as to the free dinners therein.

 

In addition, a juvenile delinquent may find himself or
herself in a residential placement without having to live under lock and key.
Rather than having to be subjected to the perils of detention/commitment, he or
she may participate in residential programs that, along with the above options,
employ child/family shelters in trying to avoid detention.

 

Then again, depending on the conditions of their home
environments, juvenile delinquents may not be eligible to return to their
families, especially if an undercurrent of abuse
exists. However, foster care and other surrogate
families may be sufficient to get the juvenile delinquent out of detention, at
least temporarily. 

 

Learning About At Home Electronic Monitoring

Learning About At Home Electronic Monitoring

In terms of how electronic monitoring actually works, the name is a fairly good indicator of the function therein. Those awaiting juvenile sentencing or those juvenile criminals remanded to the custody of their families are given devices that indicate their relative position in or outside their home and special conditions for when they are allowed to leave the house.
On top of this, regular contact is expected between authorities/other supervisors and the at-home detainee. Usually, this will be initiated by the monitoring party with calls to the offender’s home to confirm the juvenile is where he or she is supposed to be at a given time.
The obvious benefit to offenders under electronic monitoring in the wake of juvenile sentencing is that they will be able to serve the terms of the court’s ruling from the safety of home, assuming such a place is safe for them. It should be noted that is not meant to be a vacation for juvenile criminals, but rather a controlled environment where their rehabilitation can get the attention it deserves.
As such, they must adhere to the demands of accountability for their location as well as work with appointed professionals to determine a plan of attack for addressing their problems and staying out of the juvenile justice system.
To be sure, at-home electronic monitoring has its skeptics and critics, but supporters of this form of juvenile sentencing tout its many successes. According to U.S. Department of Justice statistics, failure rates for juvenile criminals in some studied samples of electronic monitoring have been reported as low as 5%, and overall, experimental groups have outperformed controls in the areas of recidivism and rehabilitation completion.

What are Juvenile Detention Centers

What are Juvenile Detention Centers

Many synonyms are used by authorities in reference to institutions designed to fight juvenile delinquency. While “juvenile detention center” is a perfectly acceptable phrase to use, “youth detention center”, “reformatory” and “juvenile hall” (sometimes abbreviated as “juvie” or “juvie hall”) are all popular derivatives of this term. This sort of building is a secure, residential complex designed specifically to hold juvenile delinquent groups.
The terms of one’s stay in juvenile hall is dependent on the nature of one’s juvenile delinquency. For example, for status offenses (age-specific crimes) a juvenile delinquent may spend less than a day in confinement. Detention centers will also be short-term stays for minors who are awaiting trial. For more serious treatments of juvenile delinquency, such as those of drug abuse, however, a juvenile detention center may be in the best interests of a child.         
Continuing with this notion of “protection”, many would assert that youth detention centers have an explicit and an implicit agenda. Outwardly, reformatories are interested specifically in lowering rates of juvenile delinquency by rehabilitating the young men and women within and helping them become more fit for life in the outside world. Effectively though, much like a “correctional facility” a detention center detains youths under lock and key.
Thus, a juvenile delinquent within is less like a resident or adoptee and more like a prisoner. Under this mindset, calling a facility a “reformatory” is blatantly euphemistic, and if anyone is truly to be “protected” by such a facility, it is non-criminal citizens who would have as little to do with the delinquents as possible. 

Know the Purpose of Juvenile Halls

Know the  Purpose of Juvenile Halls

If one stops to think about it, the treatment of juvenile hall as castigation for bad child behavior is incongruous with the very nature of juvenile law. Taking this a step beyond mere adherence to parens patriae doctrine, though, juvenile halls should correspond to the spirit of juvenile court as it relates specifically to offending minors.
Very basically, juvenile halls are designed to be rehabilitative for their inhabitants, offering, aside from food and shelter, compulsory education, intervention/treatment and work programs. On paper, this is an admirable side of juvenile hall. Just the same, the efficacy of these benefits is questioned.
Regarding the education aspect, there is often little guarantee of the standards of learning ascribed to such a service. Treatment for drug abuse and other issues has a tendency to be of limited usefulness without the addition of a support program after clearance to leave a facility. Plus, the work detainees are asked to do is often of a lower order, making the usefulness of their tasks to acquisition of transitional skills slim to none.

Understanding Juvenile Detention Rehabilitation

Understanding Juvenile Detention Rehabilitation

Some juvenile correction advocates see the most fair solution for attempts to rehabilitate the American juvenile delinquent population as spreading out the most services to the greatest amount of children in detention as possible. Realistically, though, a scattershot approach such as this may be detrimental to their cause, as realistically, some child offenders are worse off than others, and thus, need more intensive treatment lest they become repeat offenders and perpetrators of more violent, serious crimes.         
The nature of the care/treatment in reformatory facilities must also be supremely focused. Those aforementioned juvenile correction advocates, though they might push for a more generalized treatment for all, will still probably prefer certain modes of therapy over others. Indeed, certain styles of treatment have found more success than others, notably cognitive-behavioral therapy and functional family therapy. Nonetheless, juvenile rehabilitation may be most effective when an eclectic manner of treatment is implemented that encompasses a number of complimentary methods.
In addition, juvenile correction programs tend to be the most efficacious when they are allowed to work their proverbial magic on child participants. Success of juvenile detention initiatives in youth detention facilities is highly positively correlated with the quality of treatment and its duration. Furthermore, rehabilitation has proven a more reliable safeguard when it is coupled with aftercare programs and reinforcement at the home and community levels.